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开放教育资源(来自维基百科)

本文源自https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources,以下是节选。

Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.[1]There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.

The development and promotion of open educational resources is often motivated by a desire to provide an alternate or enhanced educationalparadigm.[2]

Defining the scope and nature of open educational resources

The idea of open educational resources (OER) has numerous working definitions.[3] The term was firstly coined at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on Open Courseware and designates “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work”. Often cited is the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation term which defines OER as:

“teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge”.[4]

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines OER as: “digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences”.[5] (This is the definition cited by Wikipedia’s sister project, Wikiversity.)[6] By way of comparison, the Commonwealth of Learning “has adopted the widest definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) as ‘materials offered freely and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research'”.[7] The WikiEducator project suggests that OER refers “to educational resources (lesson plans, quizzes, syllabi, instructional modules, simulations, etc.) that are freely available for use, reuse, adaptation, and sharing’.[8][9]

The above definitions expose some of the tensions that exist with OER:

  • Nature of the resource: Several of the definitions above limit the definition of OER to digital resources, while others consider that any educational resource can be included in the definition.
  • Source of the resource: While some of the definitions require a resource to be produced with an explicit educational aim in mind, others broaden this to include any resource which may potentially be used for learning
  • Level of openness: Most definitions require that a resource be placed in the public domain. Others require for use to be granted merely for educational purposes, or exclude commercial uses.

At the same time, these definitions also share some universal commonalities, namely they all:

  • cover both use and reuse, repurposing, and modification of the resources;
  • include free use for educational purposes by teachers and learners
  • encompass all types of digital media.[10]

Given the diversity of users, creators and sponsors of open educational resources, it is not surprising to find a variety of use cases and requirements. For this reason, it may be as helpful to consider the differences between descriptions of open educational resources as it is to consider the descriptions themselves. One of several tensions in reaching a consensus description of OER (as found in the above definitions) is whether there should be explicit emphasis placed on specific technologies. For example, a video can be openly licensed and freely used without being a streaming video. A book can be openly licensed and freely used without being an electronic document. This technologically driven tension is deeply bound up with the discourse of open-source licensing. For more, see Licensing and Types of OER later in this article.

There is also a tension between entities which find value in quantifying usage of OER and those which see such metrics as themselves being irrelevant to free and open resources. Those requiring metrics associated with OER are often those with economic investment in the technologies needed to access or provide electronic OER, those with economic interests potentially threatened by OER,[11] or those requiring justification for the costs of implementing and maintaining the infrastructure or access to the freely available OER. While a semantic distinction can be made delineating the technologies used to access and host learning content from the content itself, these technologies are generally accepted as part of the collective of open educational resources.[12]

Since OER are intended to be available for a variety of educational purposes, most organizations using OER neither award degrees nor provide academic or administrative support to students seeking college credits towards a diploma from a degree granting accredited institution.[13][14] In open education, there is an emerging effort by some accredited institutions to offer free certifications, or achievement badges, to document and acknowledge the accomplishments of participants.

 

Licensing and types of OER[edit]

Turning a Resource into an Open Educational Resource

The GNU head, iconic symbol of theGNU Project, and thus the GNU GPL.

Open educational resources often involve issues relating to intellectual property rights. Traditional educational materials, such as textbooks, are protected under conventional copyright terms. However, alternative and more flexible licensing options have become available as a result of the work of Creative Commons, an organization that provides ready-made licensing agreements that are less restrictive than the “all rights reserved” terms of standard international copyright. These new options have become a “critical infrastructure service for the OER movement.”[30]Another license, typically used by developers of OER software, is the GNU General Public License from the free and open-source software (FOSS) community. Open licensing allows uses of the materials that would not be easily permitted under copyright alone.[31]

Types of open educational resources include: full courses, course materials, modules, learning objects, open textbooks, openly licensed (often streamed) videos, tests, software, and other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. OER may be freely and openly available static resources, dynamic resources which change over time in the course of having knowledge seekers interacting with and updating them (such as this Wikipedia article), or a course or module with a combination of these resources.

International programs[edit]

High hopes have been voiced for OERs to alleviate the digital divide between the global North and the global South, and to make a contribution to the development of less advanced economies.[67]

  • Europe – Learning Resource Exchange for schools (LRE) is a service launched by European Schoolnet in 2004 enabling educators to find multilingual open educational resources from many different countries and providers. Currently, more than 200,000 learning resources are searchable in one portal based on language, subject, resource type and age range.
  • India – National Council Of Educational Research and Training digitized all its textbooks from 1st standard to 12th standard. The textbooks are available online for free. Central Institute of Educational Technology, a constituent Unit of NCERT, digitized more than thousand audio and video programmes. All the educational AV material developed by CIET is presently available at Sakshat Portal an initiative of Ministry of Human Resources and Development. In addition, NROER (National Repository for Open Educational Resources) houses variety of e-content.
  • US – Washington State’s Open Course Library Project is a collection of expertly developed educational materials – including textbooks, syllabi, course activities, readings, and assessments – for 81 high-enrolling college courses. All course have now been released and are providing faculty with a high-quality option that will cost students no more than $30 per course. However, a study found that very few classes were actually using these materials (http://www.nacs.org/Portals/NACS/Uploaded_Documents/PDF/Research/OCLresults2014.pdf).
  • Bangladesh is the first country to digitize a complete set of textbooks for grades 1-12.[68] Distribution is free to all.
  • Uruguay sought up to 1,000 digital learning resources in a Request For Proposals (RFP) in June 2011.[69]
  • South Korea has announced a plan to digitize all of its textbooks and to provide all students with computers and digitized textbooks.[70]
  • The California Learning Resources Network Free Digital Textbook Initiative at high school level,[71] initiated by former Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger.
  • The Michigan Department of Education provided $600,000 to create the Michigan Open Book Project in 2014. The initial selection of OER textbooks in history, economics, geography and social studies was issued in August, 2015. There has been significant negative reaction to the materials’ inaccuracies, design flaws and confusing distribution.
  • The Shuttleworth Foundation‘s Free high school science texts for South Africa[72]

English language version of global logo for open educational resources.

English language version of Open Educational Resources global logo.

  • Saudi Arabia had a comprehensive project in 2008 to digitize and improve the Math and Science text books in all k-12 grades.[73]
  • Saudi Arabia started a project in 2011 to digitize all text books other than Math and Science.[citation needed]

OER global logo adopted by UNESCO[edit]

With the advent of growing international awareness and implementation of open educational resources, a global OER logo (shown right) was adopted for use in multiple languages by UNESCO. The design of the Global OER logo creates a common global visual idea, representing “subtle and explicit representations of the subjects and goals of OER”. Its full explanation and recommendation of use is available from UNESCO.[74]

用于学习与教学的动态数学软件Geogebra

https://www.geogebra.org

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/GeoGebra
GeoGebra 是致力于各个教育阶段的动态数学软件, 它将几何、代数、表格、绘图、统计和微积分汇集成一个易用的软件包。其绘图的基本元素包括点,直线,线段,多边形,向量,圆锥曲线和函数。(3.2及以后的版本还加入了电子表格和正在不断完善的数据处理功能)这些绘图元素均可在创建后直接在屏幕或者使用命令动态改变。

GeoGebra可以完成大量初高等数学中的绘图工作。比如GeoGebra可以直接绘制圆锥曲线,对函数求导数,积分,对多项式函数求极值和拐点等,这些极大的方便了教师们制作教学材料。

GeoGebra 是一个的迅速扩大的社群, 它的用户位于几乎每个国家数量多达数百万. GeoGebra 已经成为动态数学软件的领头军, 在教学和学习方面支持科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM) 的教育和创新.

以下是GeoGerbra的一些实例。可以注意到它的应用领域已经超出了基本的数学图形,涉及到广泛的STEM教育内容。

2016 Winners of OE Awards-开放教育奖

http://www.oeconsortium.org/projects/open-education-awards-for-excellence/2016-winners-of-oe-awards/

开放教育协会(Open Education Consortium)是一个教育机构,个人和组织的全球网络,支持基于开放、协作、创新和集体发展、使用开放教育材料来实现教育的路径。开放教育协会是在美国注册,并在世界各地运营的非营利、社会福利机构。

OEC有很多会员单位,包括Delft、MIT、UC Irvine等。

OEC在中国的会员包括:教育科研网、网易开放课程、东软学院、上海交通大学。

2016开放教育获奖图谱

2016 OE Award Winners: Individual Categories  个人奖项,台湾国立交通大学的Prof. Wei-I Lee因为对台湾开放课程TOCC的贡献获奖。

2016 OE Award Winners: Site & Course Categories  网站和课程奖项,网易开放课程获奖。

2016 OE Award Winners: Project Categories  项目奖项

2016 OE Award Winners: Special Categories 特别奖项

Open edX 2016年7月更新

https://open.edx.org/announcements/july-2016-open-edx-product-update

学习者

我们想要所有的学习者得到最好的在线体验。在学习者指南的开头,我们添加了Learning in a MOOC主题来帮助学习者知道可以在线学习环境得到什么,以及解答了一些常见问题。这个新的主题包含了到edX演示课程的链接,学习者可以在其中进行练习。

The Account Settings page with the Order History tab open and called out.

学习者在Open edX平台完成了一个订单后,可以方便的得到支付的信息:我们在账户设置里面增加了一个“订单历史”页面,显示了订单基本信息,连接到每个教育的收据页面。更多信息请看 View Your Order History

课程作者

和你的学习者沟通是很重要的,我们对批量邮件特性做了更新,帮助你确认邮件到达了你想要的人。你可以在我自己、职员、管理员、所有学习者中选择多个组来发送,如果你使用了cohort特性,你可以发送给一个活着多个corhort。当你发送邮件给群组时,重复的回执会被过滤--这样你不用担心把某人的邮箱给淹了:)更多细节请看 Message Addressing 。

我们想让你得到关于你的学习者如何学习的精确数据。为了达到这点,我们增加了5个事件到我们的数据包,来捕获学习者是如何在课程中导航的,包括 edx.ui.lms.sequence.next_selected 和 edx.ui.lms.link_clicked events。更多信息请看 Course Navigation Events

并且:你是否想要更多的学习者数据?很快的,在获得你的全部学习者数据之外,你可以得到一个学习者的学习活动。这个数据每天更新,显示学习者的进展,允许你帮助落后的学习者、鼓励做的不错的。数据包括视频观看、问题回答、讨论区的互动。

可用性

我们的可用性团队做了很多努力,提升了平台的HTML,这样对于有视觉障碍和其他残疾的学习者可以清楚的理解页面上的每个元素,作用,和如何使用。这个团队还提升了平台的键盘操作来替代鼠标操作。

管理员和开发者

Open edX Con 2016 刚刚结束几周,我们希望每个人都从中得到了乐趣!超过230个来自27个国家的人参与了这次会议,分享许多sessions, tutorials和 workshops ,涵盖了几乎所有关于从 “把 Open edX用好 ” 到“建立 LTI 应用”的内容。两天的会后黑客马拉松产生了一些新的项目,我们希望融入到平台中。

为了帮助用户界面的开发,我们更新了 version 2.2.0 的 jQuery JavaScript 库。这个更新包含了 jQuery Migrate library 来支持合法的 API 请求。

对于使用 e-commerce 特性的Open edX 实例,我们增加了创建优惠码的功能,可以给学习者折扣。优惠码可以用到一个和多个课程,指定给一个或多个用户。更多信息请看 Create and Manage Coupons 。

即将到来

Learner account page with call-out for Time Zone setting, with an inset of the LMS showing the changed time zone.

目前在edX平台中的所有时间和日期是universal coordinated time (UTC)—这可能会引起对截止日期的混乱。LMS会很快具有一个时区设置,自动转换课程结束时间为学习者当前时区。所以你再也不用计算时区了(这个特性晚的有点坑爹了。。。)更多信息请看Learner Experience Improvement: Time Zone Conversion

最后,我们很高兴的宣布 Eucalyptus很快就来了!我们期待在接下来的几周发布这个最新版本的Open edX平台。

2016Open edX斯坦福年会回顾

名词解释:Open edX是edx.org的开源版本,也是Edx这个非盈利机构在技术方面的一个重要贡献-目前唯一开源的大型MOOC系统。每年Edx举办一次开源技术方面的年会,今年在斯坦福举办,参会者主要是教育研究者、教育工作者、企业以及开发者。本次年会国内有8名教育方面人士参加。

Open edX在全球得到广泛的使用,一些成功的应用包括:

清华学堂 / 斯坦福在线 / 麦肯锡学院MongoDB University / FUN / 俄罗斯国家开放课程 / 日本国家MOOC / 韩国国家MOOC / North Carolina Online / 乔治华盛顿大学MOOC

会议召开时间正好是斯坦福125周年及毕业典礼 ,典礼是完全开放的。

IMG_1726

IMG_1533

数学和计算机学院的证书颁发典礼,80%数据科学方面的毕业博士都是中国学生。

IMG_1546

会议在Lathrop Library召开,这里主要是东亚图书馆所在。

IMG_1694

图书馆里面也有一些开放实验室,空间宽阔,设备是27″iMac,学生刷卡可以随意使用。

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第一天的会议首先是Anant Agarwal大叔安利了一下edX的发展情况。说到了若干有意思的点:2003年开始实践在线教育的时候,他在笔记本上运行了一个CGI(Perl)写的网站,现在还可以访问;非营利的运行方式可以让Edx更专注于教育本身,非营利加开源可以让整个事情完美;当Edx决定要将edX.org的代码全部开源的时候,有人说”Come on, How could it be opensource? Would you really want to show the code? Giving away jewels to all that staffs?”,但是他决定”just announced it,  you can’t go back”。

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Jono Bacon 是一个技术社区管理者,曾经管理过GitHub, Canonical, XPRIZE, OpenAdvantage及其他组织。他很懂得社区运营之道,这次演讲他介绍了技术社区应该如何发展和管理,很值得一学@种瓜。

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Edx的产品经理Marco Morales介绍了即将推出的E版本,比较有意思的特性包括:更强的电子商务功能(订单记录、支付接口)、针对个人的数据分析、笔记、课程分类、microsite主题等。

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会议午餐在图书馆二楼平台自助。Anant大叔也在这里和大家一起用餐和聊天。

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下午是一些小的主题技术讲座,大概是以下的场景。大教室里面有几个讲演区和几个大桌子,很有些翻转教学的味道。

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Mitchell Stevens是斯坦福教育和社会学院的副教授,也是 Center for Advanced Research through Online Learning 的创始人和 Lytics Lab的联合总监,多本获奖著作的作者。他关注教育变革和教育评价有,这次会议上的发言部分来自于Remaking College: The Changing Ecology of Higher Education (Stanford, 2015), an essay collection co-edited with Mike Kirst.

这个演讲中提到斯坦福的关键发展其实来自于冷战中美国政府投入的巨量资金和对资金的“不监管”,所以教授们可以自由自在的花钱。而随着冷战的过去资金需求仍然增长,斯坦福转向了成果转化和创业创新。但是就教育本身,学校和教师对学生的评估标准是不好界定有效性的,教育评价对教授们而言不是愉快的事情。演讲很有激情及煽动性,比如他说“这些18岁的孩子来到斯坦福,我们告诉他们学什么,告诉他们优秀的标准,给他们发证。但是,为什么是他们?(筛选标准)为什么这样才是优秀?(教育评价)我们教授们说了算(学术权威,自治王国)”

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第二天下午仍然是分片的技术交流。第三天和第四天是黑客马拉松和一些workshop,开发者在两天内完成一个特定的功能开发。

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最后,2017年的Open edX年会将在西班牙马德里卡洛斯三世大学举办!希望明年能有更多的国内教育技术工作者去参加和交流。

会议视频请看http://edustack.org/2016/06/15/2016-open-edx-con-video/

 

2016年Open edX年会现场视频

看到了很多之前在Slack和Google Group的edX团队成员,以及世界各地的用户。很有意思。

第一天会议视频

第二天会议视频(这位斯坦福老师的演讲很有意思哦)

第三天 黑客马拉松Kickoff

第四天 黑客马拉松Demo

Breakout Session:Xblock

Day 2 – Breakout Sessions 2 through 5

近期评论